Bosnia and Herzegovina: What to know?

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Bosnia and Herzegovina is a former Yugoslav republic with three distinct ethnic groups and languages. It has a history of frequent warfare, with the Bosnian War resulting in 100,000 deaths. Today, the country remains mostly segregated and is governed by a tripartite presidency. Its economy relies on agriculture, mining, and vehicle and aircraft assembly. The country’s history can be traced back to the seventh century, with control changing hands multiple times before gaining independence from Yugoslavia in 1992.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is an often war-torn country on the Balkan peninsula in southern Europe. It is a former Yugoslav republic and is home to three distinct and different ethnic groups and languages: that of Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. The country is 19,741 square miles (51,128 sq km), about the size of West Virginia in the United States, and is commonly called Bosnia. Its capital is Sarajevo and its people are Muslim, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country of about 4 million people, bordered to the north by Croatia, to the east by Serbia and to the south by Montenegro. The country has both a continental and a Mediterranean climate and has a narrow outlet to the Adriatic Sea. It is mainly found on the Dinaric Alps range of the Balkan peninsula. The country was formed from the former states of Bosnia in the north and Herzegovina in the south, whose main city and former capital is Mostar. The country has three distinct religious groups, with Bosniaks (48%) being mostly Muslim, Serbs (37%) being mostly Eastern Orthodox, and Croats (14%) being mostly Catholic.

Much of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s history has been shaped by frequent warfare. Since declaring their independence from Yugoslavia in 1992, the country’s population, economy and politics have been dictated by conflict. The Bosnian War created distinct and segregated cultural pockets in Bosnia and Herzegovina through civil war and refugee flight. About 100,000 people were killed in three years of fighting in the early 1990s.

The fighting ended in 1995 with the Dayton Agreement, and today Bosnia and Herzegovina still remains mostly segregated. The country is governed by a tripartite presidency, made up of a Bosnian, a Serb and a Croat. The government has a Parliamentary Assembly, a House of Representatives and a House of Peoples. Since the war devastated the country’s economy, Bosnia has relied on agriculture, mining, and vehicle and aircraft assembly.

The history of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be traced back to the seventh century when the region was first settled by Serbs. The country reached the height of its power in the 1300s before falling to the powerful Turkish state in 1463, under whose rule it remained until the 19th century. The Russo-Turkish War of 19-1877 resulted in another change of control of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with Austria gaining administration of the region until 78.

In 1914, the murder of an Austrian leader by a Serbian nationalist thrust Bosnia and Herzegovina into the midst of World War I. After the war, the country was annexed by Serbia. During World War II it was controlled by German Croatia, before exchanging hands with Yugoslavia in 1946, where it remained until the war in 1991. Meanwhile, the Winter Olympic Games were held in Sarajevo in 1984.

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