## Circuit theory uses laws and techniques to describe energy flow in electrical circuits. Components include batteries, wires, resistors, capacitors, and switches. Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s laws are important. Active components supply energy, while passive components use it.

Circuit theory is a set of techniques used to describe the flow of energy around an electrical circuit. The theory is made up of a number of different laws, ideas and definitions. These include Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s law, which describe the relationship between current, voltage and resistance. In some cases the techniques may also refer to hydraulic or pneumatic circuits, involving fluid and gas respectively. An electrical circuit is formed using a number of components, such as batteries, wires, capacitors, resistors, and switches.

Electric current, at the microscopic level, is the flow of electrons around a circuit. Electrons are negatively charged particles. This is the fundamental reason why “work”, i.e. the name of energy given or performed on an object in physics, can be transmitted by an electrical circuit. Circuit theory is a collection of laws and techniques that allow people to devise circuits for specific goals and purposes.

Any circuit is built using two types of components. These are called the “active” components, which supply the energy, and the “passive components”, which use the energy. In the case of electronic circuit theory, the active components are usually batteries or generators.

There are a number of passive electrical components that are important in circuit theory. A basic “test” circuit usually consists of a battery, a passive component such as a lamp, and a variable resistor. The variable resistor can be adjusted at any time, which allows the current through the component to be varied. Other components commonly used in electrical circuits include diodes, which allow electricity to flow in only one direction, and capacitors, which can store an electrical charge and discharge it when required.

A cornerstone of circuit theory is Ohm’s Law, which is a simple formula for working out the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance in a circuit. The formula is written as “current equals voltage divided by resistance”. In other words, the resistance of a conductor is independent of the current. This formula is often used in techniques to determine how much resistance might be required to reach a certain level of current.

Kirchhoff’s laws are also an important part of circuit theory. There are several laws, each of which describes the conservation of energy and charge in a circuit. Conservation laws are among the most important in physics as a whole, and Kirchhoff’s laws apply these general principles to electronic circuits.

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