What are carbon taxes? (28 characters)

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Carbon taxes are levied on fuels that emit carbon emissions, encouraging businesses to pursue alternative fuels and promote environmental awareness. They are a mild punishment for using unclean fuels and raise awareness of environmental issues. Carbon taxes are a form of Pigovian tax, targeting negative externalities and providing a fund for environmental restoration and education.

Carbon taxes are taxes that are levied on fuels that generate carbon emissions while creating energy. Several nations use carbon taxes as an attempt to encourage businesses to pursue alternative fuels and promote environmental awareness, and some economists have proposed that more countries around the world should create a carbon tax framework. Rising awareness of carbon taxes illustrates a general global interest in environmental issues and the desire of consumers to correct environmental problems caused by industry.

Different fuels contain varying amounts of carbon, and carbon taxes are designed to be very precise. Essentially, a nation places a fixed tax on a certain volume of carbon emissions. Because the carbon emission rates of fossil fuels are known, when these fuels are sold, a carbon tax can be included in the sale, with the price of the tax varying depending on how clean the fuel is.

The main benefit of carbon taxes is that they raise awareness of environmental issues and push companies to pursue more environmentally friendly methods of energy generation. Essentially, they are a mild punishment for using unclean fuels, and since most companies are concerned about their bottom line, these companies can pursue cleaner fuels instead of having to propose a price hike that might anger their clients.

Carbon emissions are an example of what is known in economics as a negative externality. A negative externality affects people who are outside a transaction. For example, many people believe that secondhand smoke is harmful, making cigarettes another case of a negative externality; when someone buys a pack of cigarettes and lights up, people who weren’t involved in the purchase can suffer from exposure to secondhand smoke.

Some economists advocate taxes on negative externalities such as pollution because they encourage companies to seek cleaner methods of operation and provide a fund that can be used for environmental restoration, education and similar jobs. Consumers may also appreciate an energy tax when they see the benefits of such a tax in the form of public investment in alternative fuels or a proliferation of cleaner technologies.

Economists also point out that carbon taxes impose a tax on pollution, something that is viewed as a negative, rather than on income, which is generally seen as a positive. Taxes that target negative externalities are known as Pigovian taxes, after Arthur Pigou, a French economist who proposed a tax system to correct or compensate for such externalities.

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