What are hormone mood swings?

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Hormonal mood swings are caused by fluctuations in hormone levels, particularly estrogen and progesterone in women and cortisol and testosterone in men. These mood swings can occur during puberty, menstrual cycles, pregnancy, menopause, and periods of stress. Serotonin levels also play a role in mood swings, with high levels leading to happiness and low levels leading to anger and depression.

Hormonal mood swings are sudden fluctuations in a person’s emotional state caused by hormonal changes. In women, these mood swings occur mainly due to cyclical or sudden changes in progesterone and estrogen levels. They are most pronounced during the onset of puberty, certain parts of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, after childbirth and during menopause. For men, hormone-induced mood swings result from a combination of high cortisol levels and low testosterone levels.

it is a neurotransmitter that controls a person’s mood. Monamino oxidases act against serotonin and depress its levels
. When serotonin levels are high, a person experiences happiness and euphoria. If serotonin levels are low, a person will experience anger and/or depression. Hormonal mood swings are characterized by rapid falls or rises in serotonin levels.

The most common cause of hormonal mood swings in women are monthly menstrual changes in estrogen and progesterone and their impact on serotonin levels. Estrogen prevents monoamine oxidase from breaking down serotonin. Estrogen levels are highest at the beginning of the menstrual cycle, resulting in high serotonin levels and feelings of happiness. Progesterone works in the same way as monoamine oxidase and levels are highest during the middle of the menstrual cycle. This causes a rapid drop in serotonin levels, causing a woman to feel angry and depressed.

These mood swings in women have also been linked to other changes in hormone levels, such as those during puberty, pregnancy and menopause. Estrogen and progesterone levels begin to fluctuate during puberty, and this time period is when a woman most likely first experiences these types of mood swings. During the first trimester of pregnancy, progesterone levels rise and it may take until the second or even third trimester for the body to naturally adjust to these hormone levels, causing drastic mood swings. After pregnancy, progesterone levels suddenly drop to a normal level and, coupled with the stress of new parenthood, can lead to postpartum depression until the body is able to adjust again. During menopause, the production of both estrogen and progesterone decreases and eventually stops completely, causing mood swings as a woman’s body adjusts to these changes and are often more severe mood swings than those experienced during a normal period.

Hormonal mood swings, while typically characteristic of women, do occur in men. Cortisol is a hormone that helps modulate the body’s response to stress. Mood swings in men are thought to be caused by low testosterone and elevated cortisol levels for long periods of time, or if a man is experiencing long-term stress. Male mood swings are mainly characterized by sudden bouts of depression.

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