Dinghy sailing involves small boats, often less than 20 feet in length, used for pleasure sailing or competitive racing. Dinghies can be sailed with a crew of one or more, and novice sailors often start on small dinghies. Popular models include the Optimist, Topper, and International 420 Class Dinghy. Competitive dinghy sailing often uses the Olympic triangle course.
Dinghy sailing is the practice of sailing in small boats, usually defined as being no more than 20 feet (about 6 metres) in length. Many dinghies are much smaller; the Optimist dinghy is only 7 feet (about 2 meters) long. The term sailing can refer to both pleasure sailing and the sport of competitive racing. There is a wide range of dinghy classes and they can be sailed with a crew of one, two or even more.
The fins can be made of fiberglass or wood. Some sailing enthusiasts prefer to build their own boats from kits of parts or prefabricated models. Simple dinghies can be used for family day-sailing or for non-professional regattas. On the other end of the spectrum are high performance sailing dinghies, which feature a lightweight hull and large sailing rig for maximum speed in professional racing.
Novice sailors often start sailing on small dinghies to learn the mechanics of sailing. Popular dinghy models used by children include the Optimist and the Topper. Both of these boats are light and simple to operate. The Optimist rig features a single sail raised by a sprit, which can be dismantled when not in use. A removable fin extends into the water from the centerline of the hull, allowing the sailor to stabilize the boat and control draft as needed based on water depth.
The International 420 Class Dinghy, simply called the 420 for short, is another popular sailing dinghy used by both beginners and more advanced sailors. The 420 is approximately 14 feet (about 4 meters) long and carries a crew of two. They have both a mainsail and a smaller sail rigged closer to the bow, known as a jib. An additional sail, the spinnaker, can also be rigged on the 420. The 420 is often raced competitively and is included as part of the dinghy class in the International Sailing Federation (ISAF) World Sailing Championships.
In competitive dinghy sailing a course known as the Olympic triangle is often used. This course consists of an equilateral triangle bounded by buoys, with the initial side of the triangle aligned with the wind. Sailors must tack into the wind, or “beat into the wind”, to round the first mark, leaving it to port, and continue the course counterclockwise. After the round is completed, sailors tack to windward again, rounding the windward mark and returning directly to the starting point, a pattern known as a “hot dog”. Another lap, and then one last windward windward, concludes the course.