What’s oven lining?

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Furnace lining is a heat-resistant layer that protects furnace parts from extreme heat during melting operations and prevents excessive heat loss. Materials include ceramic or metal/ceramic combinations, and are applied to all interior surfaces. Lining materials are chosen for their ability to withstand high temperatures, mechanical shock, abrasion, and chemical reactions. Lining methods include pouring or compacting liquid or moistened aggregate into molds or installing individual fire bricks with heat resistant mortar.

Furnace lining is a protective, insulating layer of heat-resistant material attached to the inside of an oven’s shell, firebox, and faucet holes. This layer serves to protect the furnace parts from the extreme heat developed during melting operations. It also prevents excessive heat loss from the outer surfaces of the oven making the process more efficient. Also known as refractories, furnace lining materials are typically ceramic or a metal/ceramic combination. These protective layers can consist of individual bricks, poured fluid aggregate, or semi-wet aggregate that is hammered into place.

Melting metals requires extremely high furnace temperatures averaging between 1,500° and 2,000° Celsius (2,730° and 3,630° Fahrenheit). To avoid destruction of the furnace casing due to these high temperatures, the assembly is equipped with a furnace casing. This lining is made up of materials that can withstand this extreme heat without degrading. In addition to protecting the oven structure, the lining also insulates the oven to prevent unnecessary heat loss. This reduces the amount of external heating required to maintain melt temperatures and makes the furnace more efficient.

Furnace coating is typically applied to all interior surfaces. This includes the dome, shell, hearth, and tap holes used to pour or drain the molten metal. Furnace liners may be of composite construction with separate materials used in different parts of the furnace. This composite construction depends on the types of molten metal, furnace capacity and configuration. This is an important consideration as different thermal, chemical and mechanical loads are placed on separate parts of the furnace. Typically the rim, hearth and tap holes are lined with different materials than those used on the sides of the oven shell.

Furnace lining materials are chosen primarily for their ability to withstand prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures. Other desirable characteristics include resistance to mechanical shock, abrasion and chemical reactions within the molten metal. The most commonly used kiln lining materials are ceramic composites and metal/ceramic combinations. Ceramic veneering materials are made from a variety of raw materials, each with its own particular strengths. Common ceramic kiln lining materials include aluminum oxide, magnesite, silicon carbide, and dolomite.

Metal and ceramic combinations, also known as cermets, combine the high heat resistance of ceramics with the desirable physical characteristics of steel. The ceramics used in these cermet combinations include tungsten carbide, zirconium bromide, and aluminum oxide. The steel components of cermets include iron, cobalt, chromium and nickel.

Oven liners are secured inside the ovens in a number of ways. These include pouring or compacting liquid or moistened aggregate into molds within the kiln. Another common form of kiln lining is the installation of layers of individual fire bricks which are set in place with a suitable heat resistant mortar.

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