Spelunking, or caving, is the exploration of caves for recreational, scientific, or cultural purposes. It requires special gear and safety precautions, and is often done in groups. Caves have been explored for thousands of years and have cultural significance in many societies.
Spelunking is the sport of cave exploration. In addition to being recreational, caving can have scientific and cultural value. For example, it may discover a previously unknown animal species or archaeological sites that may be of interest. Spelunking could also be referred to as caving, and some people make a distinction between amateur cavers and professional cavers, with the term “caver” reserved for trained professionals rather than casual enthusiasts.
Caves and Curiosities
People have been exploring caves for thousands of years, for a variety of reasons. Some cultures have had mystical associations with caves, seeing them as places that have deep connections to the Earth, because they run beneath the earth’s surface. Other cultures have regarded caves with superstition or used them for cultural rituals, such as burials. Humans have also used caves for shelter and habitation. The natural curiosity of humans may be why people have been exploring caves for centuries, which is precisely why many people have taken up spelunking.
In a typical spelunking session, people gear up, locate a cave, and enter inside with the intention of exploring as much as possible while admiring the cave’s natural features, such as rock formations and underground rivers. Spelunkers usually go in groups for safety’s sake, and conscientious spelunkers heed warnings about areas that may be archaeologically or ecologically fragile, taking care to avoid such places. If a cave hasn’t been mapped before, spelunkers might also carry map data with them and write additional notes for the benefit of future explorers.
Some special tools are required for safe exploration of the cave. Many people like to wear heavy overalls, as the sport can get quite dirty, along with hard hats to protect their heads from falling debris. Climbing equipment such as ropes, anchor points and carabiners are often needed, as are heavy torches and glow sticks for navigating in the dark. Many cavers also take global positioning system (GPS) equipment — which may not work underground — long-range radios, and extra food and water in case they get lost or trapped.
A group activity
Depending on the size and condition of a cave, caving can be quite dangerous or very safe. For safety reasons, cavers are not advised to go alone or separate while in a cave. It’s usually a good idea for a newbie to date someone who is more experienced, to ensure that security risks are identified and addressed correctly. Some caving associations welcome visitors on their trips and will post information on their websites for curious people to join. It’s also possible for people to pay for guided caving trips that are supervised by professional cavers.